The whitepaper. "We characterize various currencies according to their control structure, focusing on cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and government-issued fiat money. We then argue that there is a large unmet demand for a liquid asset that allows households and firms to save outside of the private financial sector. Central banks could offer such an asset by simply allowing households and firms to open accounts with them. Finally, we conclude that a central bank will not issue cryptocurrencies in the sense of a truly decentralized and permissionless asset that allows users to remain anonymous."
"In proof of stake protocols, however, validators can come and go, and even the absolute size of the validator set can shrink and grow greatly over time. 80% of the validator set at one time may well be smaller than 20% of the validator set at another time, and what in a fixed-set model is clearly equivocation, in a dynamic-set model may not involve any equivocation at all. How do we deal with this?"
An Overview of the Ethereum Virtual Machine.
"The cryptography world has been buzzing with the news that researchers at Google and CWI Amsterdam have succeeded in successfully generating a 'hash collision' for two different documents using the SHA1 encryption algorithm, rendering the algorithm 'broken' according to cryptographic standards. But what does this mean in plain language, and what are the implications for the bitcoin network?"
Erik Voorhees explains how miners fees are only part of the true cost of bitcoin transactions. (Example numbers are outdated but the logic holds).
Vitalik Buterin on blockchain security, the article describes different types of possible attacks (Finney attack, feather forking, 51% attack, 51% censorship attack).
The introduction to the oracles.
The author explains what Network Value to Transactions (NVT) is and tries to work on better equation.
"Merkele Trees allow us to map a large volume of data and easily identify where changes in the data occur"
Forbes analysis of bitcoin based on NVT Ratio (Network Value to Transactions Ratio). It is a good explanation how NVT works.
Mean-reversion and reflexivity analysis of a Litecoin.
Cryptolab Capital research on Metcalfe’s Law.
The primer on MTV (Market to Transaction Value) which is one of main tools in analysis of cryptocurrencies.
"The SAFT Project is a forum for the discussion of a compliant framework for token sales. The goal: To develop an industry standard that protects the interests of network creators, investors, and users."
What a long range attack is and how it works? The article explains weak subjectivity, costless simulation, posterior corruption, stake bleeding, key-evolving cryptography, context-aware transactions, plentitude rule.
What exactly is Sybil Attack an how it works?
The comparison between two Proof-of-Stake protocols Casper and Tendermint and the profound analysis of the Proof-of-Stake protocol itself.